clad-plate

Cladding is the bonding together of dissimilar metals. It is different from fusion welding or gluing as a method to fasten the metals together. Cladding is often achieved by extruding two metals through a die as well as pressing or rolling sheets together under highpressure.

CRA clad and lined steel has been available in various forms and it s widely used  in the oil and gas industries. The specific  requirements of this industrial sector, methods of manufacturing clad plate, pipe and fittings are given along with welding details and information on some field applications of clad and lined products.gas production. The term “clad” steel is often taken to be generic, covering also weld overlaid and lined products.

The selection of clad steel requires decisions to be made regarding:

  • the optimum choice of CRA/backing steel combination
  • the selection of manufacturing method appropriate to the part which is clad
  • the approach to the fabrication.

Specification

  • ASTM: A263 (stainless chromium steel clad plates)
  •  A264 (chromium nickel clad plates)
  • A265 (nickel base alloy clad plates)
  • Roll Bonded Clad Plates In ASTM A263/ ASME SA263/ASTM A264/ASME SA264/ASTM A265/ ASME SA 265


Cladding Process  as below:

Roll Welding

In roll welding, two or more layers of different metals are thoroughly cleaned and passed through a pair of rollers under sufficient pressure to bond the layers. The pressure is high enough to deform the metals and reduce the combined thickness of the clad material. Heat may be applied, but is not necessary if one of the metals is ductile. Bonding of the sheets can be controlled by painting a pattern on one sheet; only the bare metal surfaces bond, and the un-bonded portion can be inflated if the sheet is heated and the coating vaporizes. This is used to make heat exchangers for refrigeration equipment.


Explosive Welding

The most common explosive metalworking technique is explosive welding, also known as Explosive bonding or explosive cladding.It is the bonding of two or more dissimilar metals with the aid of explosives. In explosive welding, the pressure to bond the two layers is provided by detonation of a sheet of chemical explosive.

Laser Cladding

Laser cladding is a method of depositing material by which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser in order to coat part of a substrate or fabricate a near-net shape part (additive manufacturing technology) .

 

Applicable standards for clad steel plate

The following standards are applicable as a rule

  • ASTM A263-”Standard Specification for Stainless Chromium Steel-Clad Plate”
  • ASME SA-263-”SPECIFICATION FOR STAINLESS CHROMIUM STEEL-CLAD PLATE”
  • ASTM A264-”Specification for Stainless Chromium-Nickel Steel-Clad Plate”
  • ASME SA-264-”SPECIFICATION FOR STAINLESS CHROMIUM-NICKEL STEELCLAD PLATE”
  • ASTM A265-”Standard Specification for Nickel Base Alloy – Clad Plates
  • ASME SA-265-”Specification for Nickel Base Alloy – Clad Plates

 

Typical dimensions and Cladding Alloys

 

Backing Steel
Cladding Alloy
Cladding Method
Type
Thickness
Type
Thickness
(mm)
(mm)
HRB
BS 1501.224.490 (~A516 Gr. 70)
15,43,63,16,29
904L
3, 3.5
HRB
Proprietary high strength grade
34,37,60,64,73
904L
3
(500MPa yield)
WO
Proprietary high strength grade
83 (x4)
625
3
(500MPa yield)
HRB
BS 1501.224.490 (~A516 Gr. 70)
71,60,36,18,11,10
316L
3
WO
CMn
120 (x2)
625
3
HRB
Proprietary high strength grade
43,27,14
316L
3
(500MPa yield)
EB
Proprietary high strength grade
287
Titanium Gr.1
8
(500MPa yield)
HRB
BS 1501.224.490 (~A516 Gr. 70)
72,82
625
3
HRB
STE 355 / A516 Gr. 60
15,36
904
3
HRB
STE 355 / A516 Gr. 60
28,31,71,57
825
3
EB
ASTM A516 Gr. 70
100 Head 2×50 Shell
825
HRB = hot roll-bonded WO = weld overlaid EB = explosive bonded

 

Advantanges of Clad Plates are as below:

Advantages of roll-bonded clad plates

  • Reduced material costs
  •  Less weight due to reduction of wall thicknesses
  • Reduction of weld length due to larger dimensions
  • Lower cost of filler metal– Superior heat conductivity

 

 Advantages compared with overlay welding:

  • Improved surface conditions
  • No dilution from the base material
  • Homogenous chemical composition

 

Advantages compared with explosive cladding:

  • Higher bonding quality
  • Reduction of weld length due to larger dimensions
  • Use of thinner clad material is possible


Advantages compared with rubber coatings and linings:

  • Metallic bonding
  •  Lower maintenance costs

 

Clad Plate Applications

  • Tank or Pressure Vessel Fabrication
  • Chemical and Petrochemical Processing
  • Air and Gas Production
  • Power Plant
  • Industrial Scrubber
  • Desalination Plants
  • Steel Mills
  • Shipbuilding

 

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